On September 16, , a progressive priest named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla became the father of Mexican independence with a historic proclamation urging his fellow Mexicans to take up arms against the Spanish government. Though a criollo himself, Hidalgo extended his call to arms to mestizos and people of indigenous descent; their significant contribution of manpower changed the tenor of the revolt. Hidalgo led his growing militia from village to village en route to Mexico City, leaving in their wake a bloodbath that he later came to deeply regret. The next day, typical activities include parades, bullfights, rodeos and traditional dancing.
Second French intervention in Mexico
The Mexican War of Independence | Boundless World History
From the stone cities of the Maya to the might of the Aztecs, from its conquest by Spain to its rise as a modern nation, Mexico boasts a rich history and cultural heritage spanning more than 10, years. The first human experiments with plant cultivation begin in the New World during the early post-Pleistocene period. Squash is one of the earliest crops. This agricultural development process, which continues slowly over thousands of years, will form the basis of the first villages of Mesoamerica including Mexico and Central America.
Struggle for Mexican Independence
This created a crisis and power vacuum in Spain that rippled out to its American colonies, including New Spain Mexico. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in , and escalated in when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in , and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. However, after the defeat of the combined Spanish and French fleets by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar in , cracks began to appear in the alliance, with Spain preparing to invade France from the south after the outbreak of the War of the Fourth Coalition. However, Spain continued to resent the loss of its fleet at Trafalgar and the fact that they were forced to join the Continental System.
On 31 October , France, the United Kingdom, and Spain agreed to the Convention of London , a joint effort to ensure that debt repayments from Mexico would be forthcoming. On 8 December , the three navies disembarked their troops at the port city of Veracruz , on the Gulf of Mexico. When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had an ulterior motive and unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they peacefully negotiated an agreement with Mexico to settle the debt issues. Simultaneously, Britain and Spain withdrew from the military coalition agreed to in London, and recalled their forces from Mexico.